Geography Yr 9

Home Sitemap Geography Science Commerce History Maths I.T

Monday, November 14, 2005

Test - Geo

In the test, we will have to:
use maps and flow charts
-latitude and longitude
-calculating slope gradients
-making cross-sections/transects
-aspect and relief of slope
-distinguishing between large and small scale maps

Gradient: Difference in height between top of slope and bottom of
slop, over horizontal distance (between top and bottom of slope)

Cross-sections/transects: same thing as each other, despite what some
textbooks say about cross-sections being 3D. Transects are usually
straight, cross-sections have peaks and ridges

Aspect: direction slope is going down

Relief: referring to whether the land is hilly, flat, steep, etc.

Large scale maps: closer and with more detail

Small scale maps: further away and with more features.

Section A of test: Part 1- 15 multiple choice questions
Part 2- Short Answers- skill based (40 points)

Section B: Extended response on australian communties using specific
examples. (25 marks)

By Frances O'Brien

Saturday, November 12, 2005

Australias Concentrated Population - Dilshan

Australia’s Concentrated Population Distribution

Australia’s concentrated population distribution may seem haphazard at first glance. However, the population is weighted in certain coastal regions for a multitude of reasons. Picture 1 shows that Australia’s population is concentrated in two coastal regions. By far the largest of these is located in the East and South-east. The smaller region is located in the south west of the continent. In fact, half the area of the continent contains only 0.3% of Australia’s population, and the most densely populated 1% contains 84% of the population. Why do Australian’s live in specific regions? Out current settlement pattern was influenced by a variety of factors, including: Historic reasons, potential land usage, water resources, power, transport, industry and trade.                 
Historical past
The historical past of Australia strongly influenced the settlement patterns of today. In 1788, Captain James Cook landed in Botany Bay. The settlement he created went on to become the largest and most populous city in Australia: Sydney. Contrary to popular belief, Captain Cook did not land at Sydney for no productive reason. The decision was made after finding Sydney had the resources to sustaining a population of any sort. Sydney had fresh water – a requirement of human survival. The land in the area was relatively flat with good clearing, allowing for the easy productions of farms. Importantly, Sydney was located in an ideal coastal area, with a harbor. In Cooks time, everything was done by boat and ship. This meant that the settlement must be near the coast. Also, the harbor meant that ships would be protected from bad weather and attack. The decision to stop in Sydney came from a variety of factors which make it the ideal place to settle.
Land Use
The Europeans regarded land as a resource. Settlements were created where land was suitable to produce food. The highly fertile soils in the south-east coast attracted farming. Take Sydney as an example. Sydney has flat land, making it ideal for farming purposes. The soil is not salty, eliminating a potential barrier to the growing of plants. There is also food and space for cattle to roam. Without certain land characteristics, food may not be grown and settlements would not form. Land use resulted in concentrated populations near the coasts. Picture two (below) shows the modern day land use of Australian regions.
Water Resources
Water is vital to sustain any kind of population. It is for this reason that all settlements must have access to fresh water of some kind. This contributed heavily to Australia’s concentrated population distribution. Towns such as Perth and Darwin were formed in coastal areas due to the easy access to water. Coastal regions received moderate rainfall, excellent for growing plants and for catchments. Coastal regions are also relatively flat, reducing runoff.

Major cities were created near possible power sources, to supply the city with energy. Early energy sources were mainly running water and coal, and settlements were created in these areas. Cities such as Newcastle developed due to its abundance of coal.

Australia’s population is also distributed accordingly to transport facilities. Early settlements developed due to their naval transport opportunities. For example, Sydney was colonised partly due to its harbour, which would protect ships from bad weather and attack. Coastal towns from Sydney are located about a two hour drive away. This is not coincidence. Settlements were created where explorers set up camp after one full day’s horse ride – two hours of driving. An example is Wollongong, a two hour drive away from Sydney. Some towns were also created as they were an intersection between transport routes, such as Albury.

Industrial opportunities also created various towns and settlements, contributing to Australia’s population distribution. The abundance of resources in various parts of Australia meant that towns were formed to provide for the workers and miners who were excavating the site. For example, Mt Isa and Newcastle developed to provide for its miners. Also, small towns developed near farms to provide the farmers with basic necessities such as bread. In the middle of several of these farming regions, a large town formed, providing the small towns and farmers with larger items, such as tractors and tools. Coffs Harbour was created in the middle of agricultural regions for this purpose.

By Dilshan

Friday, November 11, 2005

Geography Yearly 2005 - By Eugene Siu

Geography Yearly 2005 Notes – Eugene Siu

Human characteristics that make Australia unique

Demographic Characteristics

  • Age Structure

  • Distribution

  • Ethnic Composition

  • Gender

  • Growth Rates

  • Population Size

Australia’s Unique Character

Australia is the only continent that consists of one country. It’s also the world’s driest inhabited continent with a larger proportion of desert than any other continent. Australia has one of the lowest population densities in the world. Only a few areas along or near the coasts receive enough rainfall to support a large population. Today, most Australians live in a narrow coastal strip extending from Brisbane to Adelaide. 86% live in towns that have populations >1000.

Australia is a developed country with busy cities and highly productive farms and mines. It is the world’s leading exporter or wool and bauxite. The income from these and other exports has made it possible for most of us to enjoy a high standard of living.

Until 1788 Indigenous people alone occupied Australia. They had lived and prospered for at least 50 000 years before the first white settlers arrived. Britain settled Australia as a prison colony in 1788 and, as the numbers of British migrants increased, the proportion of Indigenous people decreased. Since 1945, immigration from southern European nations such as Greece and Italy and more recently from Asian nations has turned Australia into one of the most multicultural countries in the world.

Much of our population growth occurs in and around towns and cities that have a population of 1000 or more. Fastest growing areas are generally those on the fringes of capital cities. New suburbs grow into areas that were formally farming areas. As the population grows, new amenities are built such as schools, parks, shops and hospitals.


Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) conducts a survey every 5yrs on the population of Australia. It determines the size, rate of increase, age and sex distribution, life expectancy, migration and where people live. This information helps governments to decide where to build new schools, hospitals, roads, and where there is a need for retirement homes or kindergartens.

Population Growth

Natural Increase- this occurs when the number of people born (birth rate) is higher than the number of people dying (death rate)

Migration- the proportion of Australia’s population born overseas increased from less than 10% in 1947 to 23% in 1996

Crude Death Rate- the number of live births per 1000 population
Net Overseas Migration- the number of people migrating to live in a country minus the number of people emigrating from the country to live in other countries, net overseas migration is expressed as a % of the total population.

Australia’s population is ageing because:
  • Australia has one of the lowest crude death rates (7%) in the world

  • Australia has one of the lowest crude birth rates (14%) in the world

  • Australia has one of the highest life expectancies (over 70 men, over 80 men)

  • The children of the post-war baby boom are reaching retirement age in the year 2010

  • 25% of Australian women are electing to not have children, or having less, or later in life

Australia’s dependent population are those in 0-15 and over 65 age groups. Dependency can be a challenge on the economy because the larger the dependant population grows, the greater the pressure is on the working population to support them.

Australia’s Indigenous Population

Aboriginal people probably migrated from the north during the last Ice Age and have lived in Australia fro at least 50 000 years, occupying all the different environments within the continent. Prior to European settlement, 500 000-1million people were already living in Australia with over 600 different languages.

Many of them lived along the coast where more abundant food could be found. Large numbers also lived along inland rivers. They had a detailed knowledge of the land enabled them to find vast supplies of food in places where white people died of starvation. This knowledge was passed down along with Dreamtime stories to younger generations by means of talking as the main communication. They viewed the natural and human environment as one that no one owned, but shared.

Most clans were nomadic, only using what they needed before moving on. Their movements were not at random, but rather seasonal and availability of natural resources. These patterns were usually forged over thousands of years.

Multicultural Australia

Migration is the permanent or semi-permanent movement of people from one location to another. Immigration is the movement of people into a country and emigration is the movement of people out of a country. A migrant is different from a refugee: migrants choose to elect to move to another country and are free to return while refugees are forced to and usually cannot return.

Australia has a non-discriminatory immigration policy, meaning anyone can apply to migrate. Each year the government predetermines how many migrants are accepted and whether they can enter via the family, skilled or humanitarian categories. These decisions are made in consultation with state, territories and local governments, as well as businesses, trade unions and environmental organisations. This process determines the migration levels that will contribute to sustainable development.

The country of birth of immigrants coming into Australia has shifted from mainly U.K. and Ireland (1901) to mainly Asian countries.

Migration has created diverse communities where the diversity is shown in the abundance of different languages, religion, literature, music, architecture and food.

Immigrants tend to concentrate together. Factors that attract people include: entertainment; restaurants; places of worship; traditional festivals; life events; employment and networking; transport; and presence of family and friends. This pattern is observed all over Australia, e.g. Blacktown, Cabramatta.


Community- groups based on shared space and shared social organisation

Sense of Community
This is often developed when people share the same space or have similar beliefs and interests.  

Types of Communities

Shared Space
  • urban community/neighbourhood

  • rural town

  • farming district

  • mining centre

Social Organisation
  • belonging to the same sporting club, profession, political party, interest group, same language, same religion, common heritage/cultural background
Urban Communities

Describes areas where people live in population clusters of more than 1000 people and where either secondary or tertiary industry is usually the main activity.

Rural Communities

Describes areas where people live in population clusters of fewer than 1000 people and where primary industry is often thee main activity.

Remote Communities

Describes areas which are great distance from other areas, e.g. pastoral cattle stations. They can also be rural service centres, e.g. Charter Towers, regional service centres, e.g. Alice Springs, Aboriginal settlements, e.g. Hermannsburg or mining centres.

Sense of Community

Factors Contributing:
  • work/occupation

  • demographic characteristics

  • sporting allegiance

  • gender and sexuality

  • religion and belief

  • interest groups

  • neighbourhood

  • heritage

  • culture

  • rural/urban identity

  • Aboriginal/Indigenous population

  • Ethnicity

  • Popular culture

  • Socio-economic background

Diversity of Australian Communities

How communities may be identified:
  • school you go to

  • where you live

  • beliefs

  • where you come from originally

  • sporting team you support

  • shared history

  • work you do

  • what you can afford to buy

How communities are changing:
  • many urban areas on the coast and on the fringes of Australia’s major cities have grown rapidly

  • many inland towns are experiencing rural decline

  • security concerns have increase; people are becoming more isolated from each other

Forming Communities

Sporting Communities

About 5.8 million Australians aged 5 years and over participate in organised sport or physical activity. Many people are active members of a team or a club. This means they have an allegiance to the club and interested in its success. People who play or follow a sport are members of a community with an interest in common.

Interest Groups

People join groups that cater for or promote their particular interests. Interests groups often come together for special events or celebrations.

Communities based on occupation

The communities that people form at work can have a major impact on their lives. A person who works for a transnational corporation (TNC) might know hundreds of people in different cultures. A person employed in a specialised field or in an isolated location may only have a few co-workers. Shared space and social organisation in the workplace can encourage a sense of community.

Rural Communities

General Demographic Characteristics
  • lower incomes

  • lower proportion of women in the workforce

  • more married people than single people

  • higher unemployment

  • fewer young adults

  • more cars per household

  • fewer immigrants

  • more men than women

  • more Christians

  • higher proportion of Aborigines

  • higher levels of home ownership

  • younger school leavers

  • more children per couple

Australian Communities Processes/Factors

  • new technologies

  • global media networks

  • demographic change

  • intercultural exchanges

  • resources depletion

  • native title

  • changing networks and patterns of work

  • lifestyle expectations

  • natural disasters

  • globalisation of economic activity

Processes Causing Change in Australian Communities

New Technologies:
  • Technological advances (telecommunications, transport and computers) have transformed the ways communities interact. Barriers such as distance and cost are reduced; people and information are more mobile.

  • Barriers such as distance and transport and communication costs that once separated national economic systems from each other are being broken down.

  • As a result, national economies are merging into a single global economy and individual national markets are being replaced by a worldwide market.

  • Brand names such as Nike can now be found in stores around the world and advertising campaigns at an international level.

  • Closely linked to the development is the rise of TNCs.

Global Media Networks:
  • Central influence in shaping individual community and national identities.

  • 5 TNCs: Time Warner; News Corporation; Bertelsmann; Viacom; Walt Disney.

  • People who control these organisations have the power to determine what information is available to people therefore influencing public opinion.

Changing Nature and Patterns of Work:
  • Technological advances are either displacing some workers and make others more productive (by increasing the output per worker)

  • Also create new types of employment to design, build, operate and service the new technology.

  • Acts a stimulus to further innovation, creating new jobs and types.

Lifestyle Expectations:
  • Growth of the service sector has created thousands of new jobs, particularly for women and teenagers. However, many of these jobs have low wages and few benefits

  • The security of the middle class and the aspirations of the working class have been undercut.

  • Rich people who can take advantage of the technological and economic changes taking place, lives just continue to improve.

Demographic Changes:
  • Many communities have a membership drawn from a particular age group.

Impact of Natural Disasters:
  • Natural disasters have the potential to disrupt and even destroy communities.

  • On the other hand, natural disasters can bring communities together, e.g. working together to fight bushfires.

Intercultural Exchanges:
  • Immigration and tourism have exposed Australian communities to the cultures of other people

  • Many of these cultures have enriched Australian communities.

Recognition of Native Title:
  • Recognition of native title has the potential to significantly enhance the spiritual and material well-being of Indigenous Australians.
Resource Depletion:
  • Communities whose economic and social well-being is reliant on the extraction of mineral or timber resources are adversely affected by the depletion of these resources.

  • Some are abandoned altogether and some undergo a period of rapid decline. Others are able to survive by developing other functions, such as tourism.

Wednesday, November 09, 2005

Geography By: Unknown

Australia is at the same time:
An Island     largest in the world
A Continent     Flattest and second driest
A country     6th largest

Australia is located in the southern hemisphere between latitudes 0s and 90s and between longitudes 113e and 154e. Spatially Australia is part of the Asia pacific region. Our nearest neighbors are New Zealand and Papua-New-Guinea.

Australia is one of the seven contents of the world. The landmass of the Australian continent over an area of about 7683 million square kilometers. Australia’s east coast to west coast at widest is about 4000 km and you would pass over two time zones!
Going from north to South Australia is over 3000 km.

Australia is located in the southern hemisphere along with Africa, South America, Antarctica and several south pacific islands. It can also be said that Australia along with New Zealand an south East Asia is located in the east hemisphere… the line that cuts the east and west hemisphere is the PRIME MERIDIAN.

Australia's Gross national income per capita is US$20 000

What makes Australia unique…?

Many landforms in Australia have resulted due to the impacts of weathering have occurred. The break down of rocks by water and temperature changes the earths surface. On a continental scale, weathering contributes to only minor landforms. Nevertheless, the breaking down of rocks to form small granules in turn leads to other processes moving and depositing the granules to forms large bodies such as river beds etc.

There are 4 major areas in which landforms are divided into.
  • Costal plains

  • Eastern highlands

  • Central lowlands

  • Western plateau

Rivers and lakes
Australia has
  • The lowest amount of run-off

  • The lowest percentage of rainfall

  • Least amount of water in rivers

  • The smallest area of permanent wetlands

  • The most variable rainfall and stream flow.

The Murray Darling is the largest river system in Australia but other significant systems are:
  • The Burdekin                              Queensland

  • The Hunter                              NSW

  • The Murchison                              North western region

  • The Victoria and the Dale rivers               Northern Territory

  • The Leichhardt, Norman, Gilbert, Mitchell          Gulf of Carpentaria

  • The Tamar, Derwent and Gordon               Tasmania

Climate and temperature
The size and location of the Australian continent ensues that there is a very large and assorted varieties regarding its climate.
Australia's’ many climates include:
  • Tropical wet and Dry

  • Tropical wet

  • Subtropical wet

  • Subtropical dry

  • Mild wet

  • Mild dry

  • Hot semi desert

  • Hot desert

The reason why Australia is so dry is primarily that most of the landmass lies in areas dominated by high-pressure systems most of the year. The high-pressure systems bring dry, stable, sinking air, that result in atmospheric conditions not favorable to rainfall.

Flora and Fauna

Due to the generally low amounts of rainfall and unreliability, most of the floras in Australia are characterized by drought resistant qualities. There are over 12 000 native land flora in Australia that are endemic meaning that the grow nowhere else in the world. An example of this is Australia’s 500 species of Eucalyptus trees are endemic.

Plants in Australia may also be unique to places only in Australia for example some wattle trees/shrubs only grow in certain places.

Most of the worlds Marsupials are found in Australia. They include the bandicoot, Koala, kangaroo, wallaby, wombat and the Tasmanian devil.
Despite the number of unique marsupials in Australia most of Australia's animal population is not made up of marsupials.

Monotremes are unique they are mammals that lay eggs examples of this are the echidna and the platypus which are the only 2 species of  mammals on the planet to lay eggs.

In addition, Australian animals have learnt to adapt to their environments. Such as the koala that is capable of eating the eucalyptus leaves from a gum tree. The Eucalyptus leaves are filled with chemicals that are actually quite dangerous but the koala manages to digest these leaves as its salivary glands produce a chemical that neutralizes the poison in the leaves.

Measured in Hectopascles or mille-bars
Lines are called isobars
High-pressure means dry climate
Low pressure means wet climate (remember…high means dry low means H2O)
For wind direction, it is to the dot.

Contour maps
Isobars colour is usually brown
Check legend

EZ-notes - Geography